The Wonderful Library & Islamic Resource Center
World of Islamic Dawah: Islamic Library & Resource Center
Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Mon Mar 22, 2010 1:38 pm|| |
Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him
The details are as follows:
The Shaikh said, Preparing the dead person's body............
Because of widespread ignorance regarding the Islamic rulings for funerals, the Shaikh will- in the following sections - explain those rulings for you. To introduce the topic, however, I wish to discuss the following points:
1) It is compulsory for the Muslim to be patient when he is afflicted with a trial. Therefore he should neither be angry nor show vexation. Allah Almighty and His Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) often ordered us in the Qur'an and Sunnah to be patient. But even though patience is required, one may make clear to others his situation or how he feels, with statements such as the following: "I am sick," or "I am in pain" or "In every situation, all praise is for Allah."
2) The Muslim must visit his brother Muslim when he is sick, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Feed the hungry, visit the sick, and provide means for ransoming the captive.
(Recorded by Al-Bukhari)
When you visit a sick Muslim, it is recommended that you invoke Allah Almighty to cure him and that you counsel him to be patient. Say those words that will be pleasant for him to hear; also, you should not sit with him for too long. When the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) used to visit the sick, he would say: It is alright; this (sickness) will purify you (from your sins)¬if Allah wills. (Recorded by Al-Bukhari)
You should say this phrase whenever you visit anyone who is sick.
3) Brother Muslim, remember your final destination. To help you do so, reflect on the following topics:
First: What Allah’s Book Says Regarding Death
In different ways, death is mentioned 164 times in the Qur'an; here are some of those verses: Everyone shall taste death. And only on the Day of Resurrec¬tion shall you be paid your wages in full. And whoever is removed away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception (a deceiving thing). (Surah Aal-‘Imran 3: 185)
And the stupor of death will come in truth: “This is what you have been avoiding.” (Surah Qaf 50: 19)
Then why do you not (intervene) when (the soul of a dying person) reaches the throat? And you at the moment are looking on, But We (i.e., Our angels who take the soul) are nearer to him than you, but you see not. (Surah Al-Waqi’ah 56:83-85)
Nay, when (the soul) reaches to the collar bone (i.e., up to the throat in its exit), and it will be said: "Who can cure him and save him from death?" And he (the dying person) will conclude that it was (the time) of departing (death); and leg will be joined with another leg (shrouded); the drive will be, on that Day, to your Lord. (Surah A-Qiyamah 75: 26-30)
Second: What the Prophet's (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) Sunnah says about death
In a Hadith related by Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu) the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Remember often the destroyer of pleasures (i.e., death).
(Recorded by At-Tirmidhi)
Regarding this Hadith, the scholars have said that though its words are few, its meanings are profound and far-reaching, for when one remembers death in a true sense, the present pleasures he is experiencing are spoiled for him, and he is prevented or at least hindered from having long-term expectations about this world.
In another Hadith, Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu) related that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) once visited the grave of his mother: he cried and made those around him cry as well. He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: I sought permission from my Lord to ask forgiveness for her, and He didn't permit me, and I asked Him permission to visit her grave, and he permitted me, so visit graves, for verily, doing so reminds one of death.
(Recorded by Muslim 3:65, 6:82, Abu Dawud 2:72, An-Nasa'i and Al-Baihaqi)
In a Hadith related by Ibn Mas'ud (Radhi Allahu Anhu) the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: I used to forbid you from visiting graves, but visit them (now), for doing so makes one turn away from the world while it reminds one of the Hereafter.
Third: Death And Its Severity
1) The scholars' definition of death: a cutting off, a separation, a transformation, a change of state, and a move from one abode to another.
2) Abu Hudbah Ibrahim bin Hudbah related from Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allahu Anhu) that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Indeed, the worshipper experiences the agonies and pangs of death; his joints bid one another peace, saying, "And peace be upon you; you part from me and I part from you until the Day of Judgement."
(It was mentioned by Ibn 'Iraq in Tanzih Ash-Shari'ah 2:375, and he attributed it to Ad-Dailami, from Anas.)
In Al-Hilyah, Al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym recorded a narration from Makhul, who related from Wathilah bin Al-Asqa' that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: By the One Who has my soul in His Hand, facing the Angel of Death is more severe than the striking of a sword.
3) 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha) said, "(While he was on his deathbed), the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) had with him a container of water; he would put his hands into it and then wipe them on his face, saying:
None has the right to be worshipped but Allah; indeed, death has its stupors.
Then he raised his hands and said:
With the exalted companions.
Until he died and his hands lowered." (Recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Book of Battles, the chapter on the Illness of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam))
4) Some of our scholars have said (may Allah have mercy on them), "If even the Prophets, the Messengers, and the righteous ones are thus afflicted, then with what are we so busy that we do not think about that time, and why do we delay in preparing ourselves for that situation."
Say: "That is a great news, from which you turn away.” To continue Insha Allah
(Surah Sad 38: 67-68)
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Mon Mar 22, 2010 1:55 pm|| |
Fourth: Preparing for Death
As a Muslim, you should be prepared for death at all times: whether it is day or night, whether you are sleeping or awake. You can practically prepare for it with the following:
1)Faith in the phrase of Tawhid and applying it.
2) You must be steadfast in performing your five compulsory, daily prayers in congregation. Regarding the prayer, you should also pray those prayers that are highly recommended, that are voluntary in nature, that are performed in the night - and that includes both the Witr prayer and the Sunnah prayers in general.
3) You must recite the Qur'an, contemplate its meanings, and apply its commands and laws. You should recite it late at night and at the beginning and end of the day; it is also recommended for you to recite it before the compulsory prayers. Finally, you should finish reading the Qur'an in its entirety at least once or twice a month.
4) Study the Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam); follow what he orders and abstain from what he forbids.
5) Keep company with the righteous; seek to gain benefit from them, to improve both your worldly and your religious situation. One way to do that is to study both Allah's Book and the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) Sunnah with them.
Fifth: Death and Its Signs; A Good Ending Versus An Evil One
First, it is compulsory upon one who is on his deathbed and upon everyone else to do the following:
1) To write a final testament, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: No Muslim should sleep two nights when he wants to write something in his final testament except that his will is written down and placed by his head.
2) To combine fear with hope: one should fear Allah's punishment, punishment which one deserves because of his wrongdoings, while one should also hope for mercy and forgiveness. On one occasion, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) went to meet a young man who was dying and he said to him:
"How do you find yourself?"
The young man said, "By Allah: 0 Messenger of Allah, I indeed hope from Allah and indeed, I fear because of my sins." The
Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: "In this situation, when the heart of a worshipper combines those two, Allah gives him what he hopes and keeps him safe from what he fears."
(Recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, 'Abdullah bin Ahmad and Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya). See Al-Wajazah by Shaikh 'Abdur-Rahman Al-Ghaith.)
3) When one is sick and is on the verge of dying, one should especially have hope in Allah: that He will forgive him, that He will have mercy on him, for indeed, His forgiveness is vast and His mercy embraces all things. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Let one of you not die except with good thoughts (and hopes) about Allah.
The Sign of a Good Ending
1) Buraidah bin Al-Husaib (Radhi Allahu Anhu) related that he heard the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) say:
The death of a believer is with sweat on his forehead.
(Recorded by Ahmad, An-Nasa'i, At-Tirmithi, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, Al-Hakim and others.)
2) In a Hadith related by 'Abdullah bin 'Amr (Radhi Allahu Anhu) the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: No Muslim dies on Friday or on Thursday night except that Allah protects him from the trials of the grave.
(Recorded by Ahmad, and Al-Fasawi and it was graded Sahih by Al-Albani in Ahkamul-Jana'iz)
3) One of the signs of a good ending is for one to die while one is performing a good deed, an act of obedience to Allah Almighty and His Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam), such as to die while praying, fasting, performing Hajj or Umrah, fighting in the way of Allah, or while calling others to the way of Allah. If Allah wishes good for someone, He guides him to perform good deeds when He is about to take his life.
4) Another good indication for someone who has died is for Muslims after him to praise him kindly. Anas (Radhi Allahu Anhu) related that when some Muslims passed by a funeral, they praised the deceased in a good way. Upon hearing them, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
"It has become binding."
Then they passed by another funeral and they described the dead person as having bad qualities. So the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
"It has become binding."
Then 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (Radhi Allahu Anhu) asked, "What has become binding." He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) answered: "This one you praised in a good way, and so Paradise became binding for him. And this one you evaluated as being bad, and so the Fire became binding for him: You are Allah's witnesses on His earth."
5) Other good signs you may read on the face or body of someone right after he dies:
i) A smile on his face
ii) His index finger is pointed
iii) A shining or illuminated face, which results from hearing glad tidings from the Angel of Death
6. There are also a number of signs that indicate an evil ending
; among them are the following:
i) To die while one is associating partners with Allah or is neglectful in one's prayers or in any other of Allah and His Messenger's commands. Some examples of this is for one to die while one is singing, listening to music, watching lewd films, drinking alcohol, or taking drugs.
ii) After death, some bad signs can be seen on one's face or body, such as a frown, darkness, a darkness that results from having the Angel of Death giving him news of Allah's anger. Another sign is blackness on one's face and body - and we seek protection with Allah from all evil. (Al-Wajazah by Shaikh 'Abdur-Rahman Al-Ghaith 4648.)
Supplication And Patience
The loved ones of the deceased who remain after his death must be patient, especially in the early hours after his death, and more especially when one is just given news of a loved one's death. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Indeed patience is only during the initial shock.
Furthermore, one should supplicate for the deceased and say a well-known phrase that is given in this Hadith: Whenever a worshipper is afflicted with a calamity and then says, "Indeed we belong to Allah, and indeed, to Him we are returning; 0 Allah, reward me in this calamity of mine and substitute for me that which is better (than what I have lost)," Allah rewards him because of his calamity and substitutes for him that which is better than what he lost.
(Recorded by Muslim)
The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) also said: Allah Almighty says, "When I take the prized one from this world of one of my believing worshippers, and when that believing worshipper then seeks reward from me (for that calamity), there is no other reward for him except Paradise."
(Recorded by Ahmad with a Sahih chain) To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Mon Mar 22, 2010 2:05 pm|| |
As one is dying, others should prompt him to say, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah," for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Prompt those from you who are dying (those upon whom the signs of death are visible) to say, "None has the right to be worshipped except Allah." (Recorded by Muslim in his Sahih) Second:
When you are sure that someone has just died, close his eyes and tie his mouth shut, because the Sunnah indicates these two actions. Prompt those from you who are dying
: If you are with a brother Muslim when he is about to die, you should gently instruct him to say the phrase of purity: "None has the right to be worshipped except Allah." Remind him until he remembers and says it, and when he says it, say no more to him. But if he then speaks other words, remind him again to say the phrase of purity, in the hope that they will be his last words, so that he enters Paradise. The Prophet (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Prompt those from you who are dying to say, "Laa Ilaha Illallah" (None has the right to be worshipped except Allah).
(Recorded by Muslim).
In another Hadith, he (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Whoever's last words are "Laa Ilaha Illallah" enters Paradise.
(Recorded by Abu Dawud and it is Sahih) When you are sure that someone has just died
: The Shaikh said that:
1) You should close his eyes. In a Hadith related by Umm Salamah, she said, "When the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) entered upon Abu Salamah, whose eyes were still open, he (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) closed them and said:
When the soul is taken, the sight follows it.
2) You should close his mouth, tying them shut - for example, with a piece of cloth, so that when the body is washed, water does not enter it, and so that the features of the face do not become distorted.
3) In addition to what the Shaikh mentioned, you should somehow relax the joints of the body immediately after death, making it easier to move the body around, to wash it, and to wrap it up.
4) Some sort of weight should be placed on the stomach of the dead, preventing any waste matter from exiting when the washing is delayed.
5) The body should be covered; 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha) related that when the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) died, he was enshrouded. (Recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
6) The dead should be buried quickly, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Hasten the funeral, for if it (the soul) is righteous, then you are leading it to what is good; and if it is otherwise, then it is evil that you are ridding yourselves of.
7) Those who remain behind should be quick in paying off the debts of the deceased. Abu Hurairah related that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
The soul of a believer is suspended by his debt, until it is paid off for him.
(Recorded by At-Tirmidhi. See Al-Wajazab, p. 46.)
To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Mon Mar 22, 2010 8:06 pm|| |
It is compulsory to wash the body of the dead Muslim, unless he was a martyr who died on the battlefield, for he is neither washed nor prayed upon; rather, he is simply buried in the clothes he was wearing. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) neither washed the dead (Muslims) of Uhud nor did he pray over them. Fourth:
the 'Awrah of the dead should be covered with a cloth. That cloth should be raised slightly and his stomach should be squeezed gently. Then the one who is washing the body should take a piece of cloth, wrap it around his hands, and wash the private areas of the body. Next, he should perform ablution on him - the same ablution that is made for prayer. Then he should wash his head and beard with water and Sidr (a special plant, whose leaves are crushed and then are used for cleaning) or something similar to it. Next, he should wash the right side of the body, following that with the left. Then he should repeat the whole process for a second and a third time - each time passing his hands on the deceased's stomach. When he passes his hands over the stomach, some waste matter may be discharged, and if that happens, he should clean it and then block the orifices with cotton or something similar. If the orifice doesn't hold together (discharges keep coming out), he may cover them with special clay or he may use any other technique or material known in modern-day medicine, such as plaster.
It is compulsory to wash ...
: When a Muslim dies, whether he be young or old, whether part of his body remains or the whole of it, it is compulsory to wash his corpse, the exception being the martyr of the battlefield, who died at the hands of the disbelievers while he was fighting in the way of Allah. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, Do not wash them, for every injury and every drop of blood will exude the odor of musk on the Day of Judgement.
(Recorded by Ahmad with a Sahih chain) The Virtues of Washing a Corpse
In a Hadith related by Abu Rafi' (Radhi Allahu Anhu) the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Whoever washes a (dead) Muslim and then keeps to himself (what he saw of the body), Allah forgives him forty times.
In another narration, the Hadith ends: He will be freed from sins, so that he will be like he was on the day his mother gave him birth.
In yet another narration, instead of forty times, the Hadith ends: He will be forgiven for forty great sins. And whoever shrouds him, Allah will clothe him with the Sundus and Istabraq of Paradise on the Day of Judgement. And whoever digs a grave to cover him in, Allah will reward him with a dwelling near Him on the Day or Judgement.
(Recorded by Al-Hakim and Al-Baihaqi. It was also recorded by At - Tabarani in Al-Kabir with the wording "forty great sins" and it was graded Sahih by Al-Albani in Ahkamul-jana'iz.) By Fulfilling Two Conditions, the One who Washes the Corpse of a Muslim receives a Great Reward:
1) He must cover the body of the corpse, making sure no one sees the corpse's private parts, and then he must not inform others about the distasteful things he saw.
2) He should seek Allah's reward for that, not seeking any worldly reward, not even thankfulness from others: it is an established principle in the Shari'ah that Allah accepts only those acts of worship that are done purely for Him. What is the Sunnah in regards to washing the deceased?
Umm 'Atiyyah (Radhi Allahu Anha) related that as she and others were washing the body of the Prophet's daughter,' Zainab (Radhi Allahu Anha) the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) entered and said: "Wash her three times, or five, or seven, or more if you deem that that should be done; wash her with water and Sidr."
Umm 'Atiyyah (Radhi Allahu Anha) then asked, "An odd number." He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, ''Yes, and in the last washing use camphor or something from camphor. Then when you are finished, inform me."
Umm 'Atiyyah (Radhi Allahu Anha) later said, "When we finished, he (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) gave us a loincloth and said: "Make her wear it."
And we combed her hair into three braids (in one narration: 'we undid her hair and washed it'). So we divided her hair into three sections: two braids and her forelocks, which we arranged behind her. And the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said to us: "Begin with the right side and with the areas of ablution."
(Recorded by AI-Bukhari and Muslim)
We should be careful who we choose to wash our dead, for Ibn 'Umar, (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) said, "Let only the trustworthy ones wash your dead." (See Irwa'ul-Ghalil by Al-Albani) The trustworthy one is he who is steadfast in performing his five compulsory prayers in congregation, who is known for his honor, manners, trust, and good dealings. (Al-Wajazah 53-54)To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Mon Mar 22, 2010 8:23 pm|| |
Before Washing the Body:
1) A large cloth should be used to cover the 'Awrah of the body, which is the area from one's navel to one's knees.
2) The clothes should be removed:
i) - If the body and its joints are still loose and pliant enough that the clothes can easily be removed, they should be removed and washed so that one in need may benefit from them.
ii) If the body is hard - perhaps it wasn't softened after death or perhaps because of a long stay in a freezer - the clothes should be removed using scissors. The cutting should begin at the right cuff until the neck, then the left cuff until the neck. Then the pockets should be cut until the end of the garment; care should be taken so that when the clothes are removed, the cloth above the body remains steady, so that no private area of the corpse becomes exposed. If the corpse is wearing pants, then the cutting can take place either from the right or the left of the protective cloth above. The body can then be turned over to the left and to the right so that the pieces of clothing are removed, but again, it must be made sure that the cloth above always covers the 'Awrah of the body.
iii) If the fingernails or toenails are long, the one who is cleaning the body may clip them; he may also shave the armpit hair if it is dense; if it is short, he may pluck that hair, and he may also trim the moustache of the deceased.
iv) The nose and mouth of the deceased should be cleaned and then blocked off with cotton, only to be removed after the body is washed completely.
v) If the body is so dirty that water and Sidr cannot remove the filth, then the following mixture can be used:
a) Two spoons of grated soap.
b) Two spoons of shampoo.
c) Two spoons of disinfectant.
d) Three large glasses of water.
All of the above should be mixed together and then used to clean the body with a sponge. The one who is washing should begin with the head, continue to the face; thereafter, he should turn the body on its left side, so that he can scrub the right side of the body that is facing up; then he does the same on the other side. When washing the private parts, he should insert his hands from underneath the covering, always making sure that the cloth continues to cover the 'Awrah of the corpse. Now that the mixture has been scrubbed all over, water should be brought and again, the one who is washing should begin with the head, then the face, then turning the body on its left side, washing the right side, and then the opposite. In this way, both the mixture and the filth are removed. Note:
The mixture should be increased and decreased in proportion to the size of the body. After cleaning the body, or if the body is already clean, we may begin with the following:
1) If the body is pliant, it should be placed in a semi-seated position; then someone should squeeze the stomach gently three times, so that any waste matter that is about to come out may come out; the one who is washing the body should wrap a rag around his hand, and from underneath the cloth, clean both the front and rear private parts, removing any waste. While he is doing that, someone else should continually pour water over his hands from above.
If, however, the body is hard - because it was not made pliant or because it came from the freezer - it is enough to simply open the legs; after that is accomplished, the one who is washing should insert his hands from underneath the cloth and clean the private areas, both in the front and the rear. If he sees that the waste continues to come out of the orifices, he should wash them for a second and a third time; but if waste still continues after that, then he may use a piece of cloth to block up the orifice, and then he can keep the cloth in place by using a bandage.
2) The one who is washing should then join the deceased's hands together, saying "Bismillah (In the Name of Allah)." Then he should:
Wash the hands of the deceased three times.
Wipe over the mouth and nose three times each. Wash the face three times.
Wash the right forearm three times and then the left forearm three times.
With wet hands, wipe over the head, going back and forth, and then over the ears, as in the Islamic ablution.
Then he should wash the right foot three times, followed by the left foot three times.
3) Then he should bring Sidr, washing the head and face, lathering them with the Sidr; thereafter, he should rub the Sidr all over the body, beginning with the right side, from the shoulders until he reaches the feet; and then the same with the left side. On both sides, when he is rubbing the private areas, he should do so by inserting his hands underneath the cloth. Then he should repeat the washing a second time with water and Sidr.
4) This time, camphor should be used in washing the head, face, right side of the body (beginning with the shoulders until he reaches the feet), and left side of the body. And again, when dealing with the private areas, to apply the camphor, he should insert his hands from under the cloth. It should be known that camphor is a kind of perfume: though it hardens the body and makes it cold, it is poisonous to insects.
5) Another towel should be brought: every part of the body that is visible should be dried with it, such as the face, hands, shoulders, chest, back, and calves. Then this wet towel should be placed over the cloth that covers the private areas of the body: if the former is applied gently, it absorbs much that is wet underneath, and thus the body is ready for shrouding. To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Mon Mar 22, 2010 8:27 pm|| |
Some Important Points To Consider
1) When dealing with a body that has been mutilated or injured in some way or another, the afflicted area should be cleaned and then wrapped with cotton, which should be covered with a covering that is made of the following mixture: water, Sidr, and camphor.
2) The ruling for washing is the same for males and females above the age of seven, except that the hair of females should be tied in three braids. Children under the age of seven have no 'Awrah, so a male may wash a female and vice versa, washing the body three times without making the Islamic ablution. The condition, however, is that if a male is washing the corpse of a female under the age of seven or vice versa, the one who is washing must be a Mahram (i.e., one who the deceased could never marry while alive) of the deceased.
Men may not wash women other than their wives and women may not wash men other than their husbands. The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) once said to 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha) "It will not harm you that you should die before me, that I should wash you, then enshroud you, then• pray over you, and then bury you."
(Recorded by Ahmad in Al-Musnad).
After the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) died, 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha) said:
"If I would now face the matter that is now behind me, no one would have washed the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) except for his wives." (Recorded by Ahmad in Al-Musnad)
3) The miscarried fetus that dies before it reaches four months is neither washed nor enshrouded nor prayed over; rather a hole is simply dug for it, and it is buried. But the miscarried fetus that is older than four months is a human being because the Rub (soul) has been blown into it; therefore it takes the ruling of the child that is under seven years of age: it is washed, named, and the 'Aqiqah is performed for it.
4) When washing the body, one should use water that is suitable to the weather, just as is done for people who are alive: in the summer, hot water should not be used, and in the winter, cold water should not be used.
5) If in its mouth there is a gold tooth that is embedded, the body should not be harmed: the tooth should not be removed; however, if the tooth is not embedded, but is easily removable, it should be removed. That is if the mouth is open; if it is closed, it should not be disturbed in any of the two above-mentioned situations.
It should also be known that were the one washing the body to simply pour water over every part of the corpse, then that would be sufficient.
The Shaikh said that a special kind of clay might be needed to block the orifices, referring to clay that has no sand in it.
If more than three times is required to clean the body, then that is permissible; also care should be taken to clean the hidden areas, such as behind one's knees, in one's armpits and navel. Based on what is related from Ibn 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma), these areas should be perfumed.
To give special status to the body parts that touch the floor during prostration, the one washing the body may apply perfume to those areas. It would even be a good thing to apply perfume over the entire body, which is what was done to Anas and Ibn 'Umar, (Radhi Allahu Anhuma). One can also use steam aromas for the body; the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: If you are going to use perfumed incense for the dead body, then use it three times.
(Recorded by Ibn Abi Shaibah). When a Body cannot be Washed, Tayammum should be performed
If water is not available for washing the corpse, or if a man dies among a group of women or vice versa, Tayammum should be performed on the corpse; it should then be enshrouded, prayed upon, and then buried. Just as the Junub (one in a major state of impurity) performs Tayammum when water is not available, so too should Tayammum be performed on the corpse when water is not available or cannot be used. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: If a woman who lives among men dies and there is no other woman with them, and when a man dies among women and there is no other man among them, Tayammum is performed on them and then they are buried.
(Recorded by Abu Dawud in his book AI-Marasil and Al-Baihaqi)
The people referred to in this Hadith are of the same status of he who finds no water. To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Tue Mar 23, 2010 7:25 pm|| |
The best way to enshroud a male body is to enshroud it in three white sheets, using neither shirt nor turban. And as the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) did, the sheets should be wrapped around the body. However, there is no harm in wrapping the body in a shirt, a loincloth, and a wrapping.
A woman is enshrouded in five garments: a shirt, veil, loincloth, and two wrappings. A male child may be enshrouded in one or three garments, and a female child is enshrouded in a shirt and two wrappings.
All that is mentioned above is recommended. In terms of what is compulsory for males and females, children and adults, they must be wrapped in at least one garment that covers the entire body.
However, if the deceased was in a state of Ihram, meaning that he was in the inviolable state of a pilgrim, then he should simply be washed with water and Sidr, and enshrouded in the dress of the pilgrim (one lower garment and one upper garment) or in some other dress. Neither his head nor his face should be covered, and no perfume is to be used on him, because he will be raised (in the same state of Ihram) on the Day of Judgement, speaking the famous phrase (Labbaik ... ) of the pilgrim. That the pilgrim is an exception is related in an authentic Hadith. If the one who died in a state of Ihram is a woman, then she is enshrouded like anyone else, except for the following rulings: no perfume is to be used, and though her face and hands are not to be covered with the veil and gloves, they are to be covered with the sheets that are used for her shrouding, the same sheets that we mentioned when we described the enshrouding of a woman. Sixth:
The most deserving person to wash the body, to pray over it, and to bury it is the person who was chosen for the task by the deceased. If no one was chosen by the deceased, the next worthy person for the task is the father, followed by the grandfather, followed by the closest male relatives - that is, if the deceased is a male.
The most deserving person to wash the female is also the person who was chosen by the deceased. The next deserving person is the mother, then the grandmother, followed in succession by her closest female relatives. A husband may wash his wife and vice versa, because Abu Bakr (Radhi Allahu Anhu) was washed by his wife and because 'Ali (Radhi Allahu Anhu) washed his wife, Fatimah (Radhi Allahu Anha).The Ruling on Enshrouding the Dead and how to go about it
When the deceased Muslim is washed, it is compulsory to enshroud it, with a garment that covers the entire body. Mus'ab bin 'Umair (Radhi Allahu Anhu) one of the martyrs in the battle of Uhud, was enshrouded in a garment that was short in length, so the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) ordered his Companions to cover his head and upper body with the garment and to cover his legs with lemon grass. (Recorded by Al-Bukhari)
This indicates that it is compulsory to cover the entire body. The lemon grass was used because no other garment made of cloth was available to them. How to Enshroud the Deceased
The majority of scholars agree that the garment used should be thick enough that it doesn't reveal the contours or the color of the body, a ruling that applies to men and women, the exception being for the one who is in a state of Ihram. The best cloth that one can be enshrouded in is mentioned in a Hadith related by 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha) recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, and in the following Hadith:
The best thing to visit Allah with in your graves and in your Masjids is with white ... (Recorded by Ibn Majah) First Step: Measurements of the Shroud
1) We must take into consideration the size of the deceased. If, in width, he measures 30 cm, then 90 cm of cloth is used; if, in width, he measures 40 cm, then 120 cm of cloth is needed; and if his width is 50 cm, 150 cm of cloth is needed.
2) Next, we may take into consideration the height of the deceased. If he is 180 cm tall, we will need to add 60 cm of cloth; if he is 150 cm tall, we will need to add 50 cm of cloth; if he is 120 cm tall, we will need to add 40 cm of cloth. The additional cloth is needed to tie the shroud above the head and below the feet. Second Step: Enshrouding the Body 1) How to enshroud a man:
Based on the Hadith of 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha), a man is enshrouded in three garments; she said, "The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) was shrouded in three white garments made from cotton; neither shirt nor turban was used; he was placed inside of the garments and was then wrapped." (Recorded in the Six Books, also by Ibn Jarud and Al-Baihaqi)
i) The straps used to tie the shroud are taken from the width of the shroud itself, so if the body's width measure 60 cm, for example, the width of the shroud should measure 180 cm, and the straps used to tie the corpse can be taken from that width; the number of straps should be odd - 7, for example.
ii) If the body is 180 cm tall, we add 60 cm, and the shroud becomes 240 cm in length. The three shrouds should be placed one on top of the other on the bier (frame used for carrying the corpse), and the longest of the shrouds is to be placed beside the head.
Note: The measurements for the shrouds and the belts are known from experience; otherwise, there are no specific measurements mentioned in the Shari'ah.
iii) A Tubban (a garment that covers the lower body, but is one piece only and has no legs) is cut from cloth, and it measures 100 cm in length by 25 cm in width. It should be placed on top of the shrouds, underneath the buttocks of the body. A piece of cotton is placed on the Tubban, as well as a mixture of perfume and camphor; the mixture should also be applied to the shroud that is on top: two cups of musk and four cubes of camphor (the quantity should be reduced if the body is smaller).
iv) The body should then be placed on top of the shrouds, still with a cloth on top to cover the private areas. Then any kind of perfume stick should be applied on the places of prostration, honoring prostration to Allah. Then the perfume should be applied to the rest of the body, followed by areas that are difficult to reach, such as behind the knees. Then the arms of the deceased should be placed parallel to its sides. The Tubban is then tied on the body to prevent any impurities that may continue to discharge, protecting the shrouds and making sure that the purity of the deceased continues until it is buried.
v) Next, the head and legs should be placed and wrapped in the right side of the first shroud, followed by the left side, at which point the covering over the body is removed. The same procedure should then be carried out using the second and the third shrouds.
vi) The first belt is used to tie the head, and whatever is extra from the shrouds should be returned to the face. Then the legs are tied. The remaining seven belts are then evenly distributed over the body; they should be tied on the left side, making it easy to loosen the knots when the body is placed on his right side in the grave. 2) How to enshroud a woman:
It is recommended to use five pieces for a woman: 2 wrappings, a shirt, a loincloth, and a veil. If she measures 50 cm in width and 150 cm in length, the width ofthe wrappings should be 150 cm, from which the belts are taken, and again, the straps should be in odd number - seven, for example. Since she is 150 cm tall, 200 cm of cloth should be used. The straps are placed on the bier first, and then the shrouds. The length and width of the shrouds follows the same principles as those outlined for men.
i) The cutting of the shirt: The shirt is measured two times the length from the shoulders to the end of the ankles. An opening is cut in the middle, from which the head enters. The upper part is of a width of 90 cm.
ii) The loincloth should be 90 cm in width and 150 cm in length.
iii) The veil is 90 square centimeters.
iv) The Tubban should measure 25 cm by 90 cm. It is placed on top of the loincloth, so that it is directly underneath the buttocks of the deceased. A small amount of cotton is placed on it, as well as a mixture of perfume and camphor, and the same mixture is spread over the loincloth and shirt. For all female corpses, the length of the shirt, loincloth, and veil is 90cm.
v) The corpse is then carried and placed on top of the shrouds with the body covering still in place. The Tubban is the first to be tied, to prevent any waste from discharging onto the shrouds. The right part of the loincloth is tied and then the left side. The body is rolled inside, until the body covering is no longer needed and is discarded. The head is then placed inside of the shirt, after which it is placed on the rest of the body, with the sides of the garment being placed underneath the body. Next, the veil is brought: the head, its hair, and the face are veiled.
vi) The wrappings (shrouds): The head is placed on top and then is rolled inside of the right side of the first wrapping, followed by her legs. Then her head and legs are placed and rolled into the left side of the first wrapping. Next, the same is done with the second wrapping.
vii) The straps: First the head is tied and then the feet. Whatever is left over from both ends is returned to the head and the feet, and is tied with the extra length of the strap. Next, the remaining five straps are tied evenly over the body, with the knots on the left side, making it easy to loosen them when the body is placed on its right side inside of the grave. Note:
1) A young boy under the age of seven is enshrouded with one sheet that is big enough to cover his entire body, or with three sheets.
2) A young girl under the age of seven is enshrouded with a shirt and two wrappings.
3) Musk should be applied between the shrouds used for the deceased. Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (Radhi Allahu Anhu) related that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
The best perfume is musk. (Recorded by Muslim)
Ibn Al-Munthir said, "The majority of the scholars we know are of the view that a woman should be enshrouded in seven sheets ... that is preferred because while she was alive, a woman's 'Awrah is larger than the area of a man's 'Awrah. While she was alive and in a state of Ihram, the best state to be in, she wore stitched clothing, so she may wear stitched clothing after her death. On the other hand, when alive, a man in a state of Ihram is not allowed to wear stitched clothing. Therefore because men and women differ in their clothing while they are living, they also differ after they are dead." (Al-Mughni 3:391).
A man may wash the body of his wife and vice versa. 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha) said, "If I were to face now that which is behind me, no one would have washed the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) except for his wives." (Recorded by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah). In another Hadith, she said, "The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) once returned to me after a funeral in Al-Baqi' (famous graveyard in Al-Madinah), and I had such a great headache that I was saying, "Oh, my head." He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Rather me (as well), Oh, my head. It would not hurt you were you to die before me, and then I washed you, enshrouded you, prayed over you, and buried you.
(Recorded by Ahmad and Ad-Daraqutni)
The Shaikh mentioned that Abu Bakr's (Radhi Allahu Anhu) body was washed by this wife; he was referring to Asma' bint 'Umais Al-Kath'amiyyah (Radhi Allahu Anha) who accepted Islam in the early days of Makkah. She emigrated with ]a'far (Radhi Allahu Anhu), her husband at the time. When ]a'far (Radhi Allahu Anhu) was martyred, Abu Bakr (Radhi Allahu Anhu) married her, and when he died, 'Ali (Radhi Allahu Anhu), married her. To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Tue Mar 23, 2010 7:36 pm|| |
How to pray over the dead: "Saying Takbir four times; after the first time, one should recite Al-Fatihah, and it is also good to recite a short Surah after that, or even one verse or two - a practice that is based on an authentic Hadith related by Ibn 'Abbas (Radhi Allahu Anhuma).
After the second Takbir, one should send blessings upon the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) just as one does so in the seated position of the prayer. Then he should say the Takbir for a third time, and say:
"0 Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those present and those absent, our young and our old, our males and our females. 0 Allah, whom among us You keep alive, then let such a life be upon Islam, and whom among us You take unto Yourself, then let such a death be upon faith. 0 Allah, forgive and have mercy upon him, excuse him and pardon him, and make honorable his reception. Expand his entry, and cleanse him with water, snow, and ice, and purify him of sin as a white robe is purified of filth. Exchange his home for a better home, and his family for a better family, and his spouse for a better spouse. Admit him into Paradise, protect him from the punishment of the grave and the torment of the Fire; make spacious for him his grave and illuminate it for him. 0 Allah, do not deprive us of his reward and do not let us stray after him."
Then one should make the fourth Takbir, after which one says one Taslim to the right.
With each Takbir, it is recommended to raise one's hands. And of course, the pronouns change according to who it is that died: if it is a female: "0 Allah, forgive her"; if it is more than one person that died, "0 Allah, forgive them." And if two people died, the Arabic languages accommodates the dual as well, so that one says, "the two of them."
If the deceased is a child who has not yet reached the age of puberty, rather than supplicating for his forgiveness one should say, "0 Allah, make him a preceding reward and a stored treasure for his parents, and an answered intercessor. O Allah, through him, make heavy their Scales and magnify their reward. Unite him with the righteous believers, place him under the care of Ibrahim, and protect him by Your mercy from the torment of Hell."
The Sunnah is for the Imam to stand parallel to the head of the deceased male, and parallel to the middle of the deceased female. If the funeral prayer is for more than one person, the male body should be placed closest to the Imam. If there are children as well, then the male children are placed before the female adults, who are to be placed before the female children. The head of the male child should be parallel to the head of the male adult, and the middle part of the woman's body should be parallel to the head of the male adult. The same applies to the female child: her head is parallel to the head of the female adult, and the middle part of her body is parallel to the head of the male adult. Those praying with the Imam should all stand behind him, unless there remains one who finds no place behind him; he may stand to the Imam's right. How to pray over the dead ...
: It is Fardh Kifayah (communal obligation) to participate in a Muslim's funeral: if some of the Muslims perform it, the rest are absolved from the obligation. Indeed, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) used to pray over deceased Muslims. But when a Muslim died, leaving outstanding debts without making provision to have them repaid, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) wouldn't pray over that person; instead, he would say to his Companions,
Pray over your companion. (Recorded by Al-Bukhari) The Conditions of Praying over the Dead
The same conditions that apply to a regular prayer apply to the funeral prayer; for example, then, one must be in a state of purity, one must cover one's 'Awrah, and one must face the Qiblah. Because the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) called the funeral prayer a prayer when he said:
Pray over your companion.
It is given all of the rulings of any other regular prayer. Elements that are Compulsory to the Funeral Prayer
1) To stand, but only for one who is able.
2) Intention, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Indeed, deeds are only by their intentions.
3) Recitation of Al-Fatihah or praising Allah.
4) Sending blessings and peace upon the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) .
5) The four Takbirs.
7) The final Taslim. How to Perform the Funeral Prayer
1) The bodies are placed in the direction of the Qiblah.
2) As the Imam stands for the prayer, his followers should stand behind him in three or more rows, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Whoever has three rows pray over him, then it becomes necessary (i.e. Paradise).
(Recorded by At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan)
3) The worshipper should raise his hands, intending to pray over the one who has died, or if they are more than one, those who died, saying, "Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Most Great)."
4) The Shaikh said that he should read Al-Fatihah and then a short Surah. Here, the Shaikh is alluding to a Hadith related by Talhah bin 'Abdullah bin 'Awf who said, "I prayed behind Ibn 'Abbas, (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) over a funeral; he recited the Opening of the Book (Al-Fatihah) and then another Surah at such a voice that he made us hear what he was reciting. When the prayer ended, I took his hand, asked him about what he did, and he answered, 'I only read out loud for you to learn that it is Sunnah and right (to do so).'" (Recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
5) Then he should say the Takbir and send blessings and peace upon the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)
6) Then he should say the Takbir and supplicate for the dead.
7) Then he should say the final Takbir.
8) At this point, if he wishes, he may supplicate and then say the Taslim to end the prayer, or he may (after the fourth Takbir) end the prayer immediately, in both cases by saying the Taslim once. From the Sunnah, we know that the funeral prayer commences when the Imam says the Takbir; he then recites Al-Fatihah silently. Next, he sends blessings upon the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) after which he supplicates for the dead. And then he ends the prayer by saying the Taslim. The Wording of the Supplication to be used During the Funeral Prayer
There are many different wordings related from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) regarding the funeral prayer; anyone of them is sufficient; the Shaikh mentioned one wording and here is another:
"0 Allah, so-and-so is under Your care and protection, so protect him from the trial of the grave and from the torment of the Fire. Indeed You are faithful and truthful. Forgive and have mercy upon him, surely You are the Oft-Forgiving, The Most Merciful. 0 Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those present and those absent, our young and our old, our males and our females. 0 Allah, whom among us You keep alive, then let such a life be upon Islam, and whom among us You take unto Yourself, then let such a death be upon faith. 0 Allah, do not deprive us of his reward and do not let us stray after him."
If the deceased is a child, then one should supplicate:
"0 Allah, make him a stored treasure, and a preceding reward for his parents. 0 Allah, through him, make heavy their Scales and magnify their reward. Do not deprive us and them of his reward, and do not put us or them to trial after him. 0 Allah, unite him with the righteous believers from before, place him under the care of Ibrahim, and exchange his home for a better home, his family for a better family. 0 Allah, keep him safe from the trials of the grave and from the torment of the Fire."
Both of the above-mentioned supplications are authentic; the supplication that the Shaikh mentioned is found in a Hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu), which is related by Muslim and others. The Sunnah is for the Imam to stand ...
: Abu Ghalib AI-Khayyat related that he witnessed Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allahu Anhu) pray over the body of a man; during the prayer, Anas stood parallel to the head of the body. When the body was carried off, the body of a woman from the Quraish was brought. After Abu Hamzah (Anas) was told who she was, he prayed over her, but this time, he stood parallel to the middle of her body. Abu Ghalib said, "Among us on that day was Al-'Ala' bin Ziyad Al-'Adwi; when Al-'Ala' noticed the difference between the way Anas stood over the man and over the woman, he said, '0 Abu Hamzah, did the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) stand the same way that you stood in relation to the man and in relation to the woman.' He said, 'Yes.' Al-'Ala' turned to us and said, 'Memorize (this Sunnah).'" (Recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah)
In one narration, Nafi' reported that Ibn 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) prayed over nine deceased Muslims at one time. He placed them right after the Imam and the women after the Qiblah. He lined the women up in one row, and he placed the corpse of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali, and wife of 'Umar bin AI-Khattab with her son, Zaid, together (Radhi Allahu Anhum). The Imam at that time was Sa'id bin Al-'As, and among the followers were Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id, and Abu Qatadah (Radhi Allahu Anhum). When the young boy's body was placed beside the Imam (and before the women), one of the men present complained and later related, "I argued against that, and as I looked at Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id, and Abu Qatadah, I said, 'What is this!' And they said, 'This is the Sunnah.''' (Recorded by 'Abduc-Razzaq, An-Nasa'; and Ibn Jarud) Following the Funeral Procession
It is Sunnah to follow the funeral procession until the body is buried, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Visit the sick and walk with funerals: they will remind you of the Hereafter.
(Recorded by Muslim)
It is recommended to walk in a fast pace when carrying the body to the grave, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Be quick, for if the soul is righteous, then it is good that you are taking him to.
It is recommended to walk in front of the body, for that was the practice of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) Abu Bakr and 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) (Recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and others)
As for the virtues of walking with a funeral, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: When one follows the funeral of a Muslim, having faith and seeking his reward with Allah, and when one stays with the funeral until the body is prayed over and its burial is completed, then he returns with two Qirats (a large measurement) of reward, each Qirat is the size of Uhud. When one prays over it, but returns before it is buried, then he returns with one Qirat.
(Recorded by Al-Bukhari) To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Tue Mar 23, 2010 7:48 pm|| |
How to bury the dead: It is legislated for the grave to be dug to a depth equal to have the size of the man being buried. Inside of the grave, there should also be a hole dug (this hole is called a Lahd) on the side that is in the direction of the Qiblah. The body should then be placed on his right side in the Lahd. The knot of the shroud should be loosened; after it is loosened, it should not be removed, but left alone. The face of the deceased should not be exposed, regardless whether the body is female or male. Then bricks should be placed on the Lahd and plastered, so that the body is protected from dirt. If bricks are not available, then tablets or stones or wood may be used: anything to protect the body from dirt. Next, dirt is poured down, and it is recommended to say, "Bismillah wa 'Ala Millati Rasoolillah. (In the Name of Allah and upon the way of the Messenger of Allah)." The ground of the grave should be raised to a level equal to the span of a hand. If possible, pebbles should be placed above the grave and it should be sprinkled with water.
It is legislated for those who participated in the burial to stand beside the grave (after the burial) and supplicate for the deceased. When the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) would finish burying a body, he would stand by the grave and say: Ask forgiveness for your brother, and ask (Allah) to make him firm, for indeed, he is being asked right now. The Burial
To bury the dead, which means to hide the body completely underneath the dirt of the ground, is Fardh Kifayah (a communal obligation: at least some of the Muslims must perform it). Allah Almighty says:
Then He causes Him to die, and puts him in his grave. (Surah ‘Abasa 80:21)
There are certain rulings regarding the Islamic burial:
1) The grave should be deep enough to prevent predators and birds from reaching the body and to prevent the odor of the body from harming those above the ground. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
"Dig, dig deep, do it well, and bury two or three in one grave."
His Companions asked, "Who should we place first, 0 Messenger of Allah?" He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
"Give precedence to whoever from them had more of the Qur'an with him."
(Recorded by At-Tirmithi who graded it Sahih)
No more than one body should be buried in a single grave except when necessary, such as when there are a lot of bodies (which happens very often after battles).
2) A hole in the side of the grave should be dug, though a hole in the middle of the grave is permitted; the latter is called a Lahd, while the former is called a Shaqq. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
The Lahd is for us while the Shaqq is for others.
Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and At- Tirmidhi. In its chain is a disparaged narrator but some of the people of knowledge consider it Sahih.
3) Each person who is present for the burial should pour down dirt three times with his hands; he should throw the dirt into the grave from the side where the head of the deceased is, for that is what the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) is described as having done as recorded by Ibn Majah with a chain that there is no harm in.
4) The corpse should be placed in the grave from the back, if possible; then he should be directed to face the Qiblah and placed on his right side. The knot of his shroud should be loosened, but his face should not be exposed. The person placing the corpse down says, "In the Name of Allah, upon the way of the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)," for that is what the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said. (Recorded by Abu Dawud and AI-Hakim who graded it Sahih)
5) The woman's grave should be covered with some kind of a cloth while she is being placed in the grave and in the Lahd. Our pious predecessors would do that for women, but not for men. To continue Insha Allah
Location: The Wonderful Art Garden
|Subject: Re: Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him Tue Mar 23, 2010 7:58 pm|| |
If one has not prayed over the deceased before the burial, it is legislated for him to pray over it after the burial, because the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) did that; however, it must be performed within the period of a month. If the period is longer than that, then it is not legislated to pray over the grave, because it has not been reported that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) prayed over a grave when more than one month expired after the burial. Tenth:
It is not permissible for the relatives of the deceased to prepare food for others: the noble Compa¬nion, Jarir bin 'Abdullah Al-Bajali (Radhi Allahu Anhu), said, "We used to consider gathering at the place of the deceased's relatives and the preparation of food after the burial as being a form of Niyahah (wailing)." (Recorded by Imam Ahmad with a Hasan chain)
While it is forbidden for the relatives of the deceased to prepare food for others, others may prepare food for them, especially in the case of relatives and neighbors, because it then becomes recommended. When the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) heard about the death of Ja'far bin Abi Talib (Radhi Allahu Anhu), in Syria, he ordered his family to prepare food for the family of Ja'far; he (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
A matter has come to them that pre-occupies them.
It is not wrong for the relatives of the deceased to invite neighbors or others to partake in the food that was given to them; we know of no time limit for that in the Shari'ah. Eleventh:
A woman is not allowed to mourn over the deceased for more than three days unless the deceased is her husband, in which case she must mourn for four months and ten days; but if she is pregnant, her mourning continues only until she delivers her baby. Both these rulings are based on the authentic Sunnah.
As for a man, he is not allowed to mourn at all, not for his relatives and not for anyone else. Twelfth:
It is legislated for men to visit graves every now and then, to supplicate for the deceased, to ask Allah to have mercy on them, and to remember death and what comes after it. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Visit graves, for verily, doing so will remind you of the Hereafter. (Recorded by Imam Muslim in his Sahih)
The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) taught his Companions to say when they visit the graves: Peace be upon you all, 0 inhabitants of the graves, among the believers and the Muslims. Verily we will, Allah willing, be united with you, we ask Allah for well-being for us and you. May Allah have mercy on those that parted early from us and those that parted late.
As for women, it is not for them to visit graves, for the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) cursed females who visit graves. Also, it is feared that by their visits, trials may result, not to mention their lack of patience. Similarly, they may not follow the funeral procession to the graveyard because the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) forbade them from doing so.
The funeral prayer, however, whether it is performed in the Masjid or anywhere else, is legislated for both men and women.
This is the last of what has been compiled here.
O Allah, send prayers and salutations on Muhammad, his family, and his Companions.
Lesson Eighteen-Preparing the Dead Person's Body, Praying over Him, and Burying Him